Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a by-product from natural gas extraction and crude oil refining. It is being widely used as a fuel and for refining purposes. The latter ranges from private consumption for household heating and cooking to industrial applications including engine fuels, crop drying and the production of olefins for the petrochemical production of among others plastics.
Depending on the cargo size, seaborne transportation is carried out in liquid form in fully pressurized condition (18 bar) on smaller vessels up to 11,000 m³ and in either semi-refrigerated or fully refrigerated condition (down to -45° Celsius) on larger tonnage.
Ammonia is processed out of Nitrogen (in air) and natural gas. It contains the highest amount of Nitrogen which is the world’s most important nutrient and has become strategic in modern food production. Ammonia is therefore mainly being used as feedstock for fertilizers. Important volumes are also allocated to the production of explosives (among others for the mining industry) and industrial applications (such as synthetic fibres, synthetic resins and catalyzing processes to reduce emissions).
Its seaborne transportation takes place in liquid form in fully-refrigerated condition (-33° Celsius).